Leke Çeşitleri ve Leke Karşıtı Aktifler - miseca

Stain Types and Anti-Stain Actives

Posted by Burak Çelik on

Stains are unfortunately a common problem for most people. It can appear suddenly and be a guest on the skin for years. So where do these spots come from? Let's examine it.


When some areas of the skin appear darker than other areas as a result of excess melanin production, it is called "hyperpigmentation" or, in general terms, "spot". It can occur for various reasons such as genetic factors, hormonal changes, or acne. However, the formation mechanisms of the stain are generally similar.

What is melanin?

Melanin is a kind of pigment in the skin. It is produced by melanocyte cells in the lowest layer of the epithelial covering of the skin, known as the epidermis. UV rays from the sun are the biggest trigger. If you have a skin type that is prone to stains or an underlying cause, it can occur in a short time. It is synthesized by an enzyme called tyrosinase, most of the stain removing actives also act on this enzyme.

Stain formation mechanism

Types of Stains


It is a type of hyperpigmentation that usually occurs with pregnancy and the use of birth control pills. It appears as large irregular spots.

Aging Spots

It is the spots that appear with long-term sun exposure, not using regular sunscreen and with advancing age. It is usually manifested by round brown spots and skin tone unevenness.

Acne Spots

There are two types called PIE and PIH.

PIE (Post Inflammatory Erythema): These are red spots formed by damage and expansion of capillary blood vessels due to inflammation and trauma. It becomes more evident with the deterioration of the skin barrier.

PIH (Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation): It occurs as a result of excessive melanin production as a result of the skin's natural response to inflammation. They are brown spots that become evident with sun exposure.

Anti-Blemish Ingredients and Effect Mechanisms

Actives used as anti-stains act by inhibiting the stain formation mechanisms at different points. I have prepared a summary table for you about the effectiveness of some ingredients that have been proven in clinical studies.

Anti-Stain Mechanisms

In the table, each group is divided into many sub-branches among themselves. For example, Arbutin and Kojic acid, which inhibit Tyrosinase activity, do this in different ways. Therefore, different ingredients from the same group have a synergistic effect. Scientific studies also reveal that a more effective result is obtained by using the actives from different groups together.

How long does it take for the spots to go away?

It takes at least 3 months to get a meaningful result in hyperpigmentation. Clinical trials are generally designed for 12 weeks. For this reason, it is very important to use the products regularly. Especially in order to prevent the formation of new spots, sunscreen products should not be missing from the routine.


NA Vashi, RV. kudu. Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment. British Journal of Dermatology. 2013;169(Suppl. 3):41–56.

Galappatthy P., Rathnayake D. Depigmenting Agents. In: Kumarasinghe P. (eds) Pigmentary Skin Disorders. Updates in Clinical Dermatology. 2018 Springer, Cham.

Hollinger JC, Angra K, Halder RM. Are Natural Ingredients Effective in the Management of Hyperpigmentation? A Systematic Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol . 2018;11(2):28-37.

Shankar K, Godse K, Aurangabadkar S, et al. Evidence-based treatment for melasma: expert opinion and a review. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) . 2014;4(2):165-186.

Kim H, Choi HR, Kim DS, Park KC. Topical hypopigmenting agents for pigmentary disorders and their mechanisms of action. Ann Dermatol . 2012;24(1):1-6.

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  • Merhabalar,
    Ürünlerinizi yaklaşık 1 senedir severek kullanıyorum. Etkilerini hissettikçe diğer ürünlerinizden de almaya başladım. Ürünler arttıkça uygularken işlem basamakları iyice karıştı.
    Özellikle leke tedavisi için arbutin, niacinnimide, c vitamini, aha bha serum ne sırayla ve ne sıklıkla kullanmalıyım. Bilgi verebilirseniz çok memnun olurum.

    Gökçe on

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